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Formaldehyde Exposure 101In high school Biology classes I remember having to dissect pickled worms, frogs, baby pigs, and even a mink. Yes it was a gruesome scene, but not nearly so gruesome as the sour odor from all the Formaldehyde (a.k.a. The teacher usually stored our mutilated critters in non-air-tight bags under her desk in between our hack job sessions. Sources of Formaldehyde Gas in homes, workplaces, and schools is a very common culprit for causing general indoor air pollution, Sick Building Syndrome, and even increased risk of cancer. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 15]**PEER REVIEWED**Environmental considerations: water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. You can read about my experience with this toxic gas below. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979., p. Indoor storage should be in areas having floors pitched toward a trapped drain or in curbed retention areas. Use surface active agent (eg detergent, soaps, alcohols), if approved by USEPA. Have you ever suffered from burning eyes, nose, throat, or lungs while only in a particular building or home? If so, you too may be inhaling elevated levels of this noxious gas. Air cleaning using an efficient air purifier that has the proper gas filtering media (such as the one below) can remove fumes reintroduced from source materials. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 11]**PEER REVIEWED**The following engineering controls are recommended to minimize formaldehyde exposure: 1. Also, formaldehyde vapors should be prevented from entering the room from the drains serving the main system & the dialysis consoles. [IMDG; International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; International Maritime Organization p.3347, 8176-1 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**Storage Conditions: PROTECT AGAINST PHYSICAL DAMAGE. INDOOR STORAGE SHOULD BE IN AREAS HAVING FLOORS PITCHED TOWARD TRAPPED DRAIN OR IN CURBED RETENTION AREAS. And ventilation with clean outside air can help to dilute what gets reintroduced but not immediately captured by any air purifier. Local exhaust ventilation should be installed over work stations using formalin or specimens preserved in formalin. Small quantities of formaldehyde should be purchased in plastic containers for ease of handling & safety. The air should be regularly monitored for formaldehyde, & in-service education should be conducted periodically on the effects of formaldehyde. MINIMUM STORAGE TEMP TO PREVENT POLYMERIZATION RANGE FROM 83 DEG F FOR 37% FORMALDEHYDE CONTAINING 0.05% METHYL ALCOHOL TO 29 DEG F FOR FORMALDEHYDE CONTAINING 15% METHYL ALCOHOL.
Replacing Formaldehyde containing materials with non-toxic Formaldehyde-free green building materials is not practical for most people due to the logistics, labor, and material costs that would be involved. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./ [49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/2000)]**PEER REVIEWED**The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. V2 443 (1978)]**PEER REVIEWED**Inhibition by methanol decreases the minimum storage temp by about 2.3 deg C per wt % methanol for unstabilized soln & about 1.3 deg C per wt % methanol for stabilized solutions. (Peer-review conclusions of an IRPTC expert consultation (May 1985)) [United Nations. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Environmental Programme, Dec. 183]**PEER REVIEWED**PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": There is no universal method of disposal that has been proved satisfactory for all carcinogenic compounds & specific methods of chem destruction ... As you can see from the graphic above, sources of Formaldehyde Gas are common throughout most homes and can be steadily off-gased from lit cigarettes, storage cabinets made of particle board, subflooring, carpeting, wallboard, electronics, furniture, ceiling and flooring materials, door casings, insulation, household chemical products, and open stoves or heaters - just to name a few man-made sources inside. Indoor storage areas should be equipped with automatic sprinklers. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. use water spray to cool and disperse vapors, protect personnel, and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures. However, not all incinerators are suitable for this purpose. is probably the gas-fired type, in which a first-stage combustion with a less than stoichiometric air:fuel ratio is followed by a second stage with excess air. to absorb soln onto suitable combustible material, such as sawdust. Formaldehyde Gas is one of the most common among thousands of known volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which often contribute to indoor air pollution in homes and workplaces. Storage tanks should be adequately grounded to discharge static electricity and to reduce other electrical hazard. Toxic and Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 707]**PEER REVIEWED**Formaldehyde is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Alternatively, chem destruction may be used, esp when small quantities ... Testing, source control, ventilation, and air cleaning should all play a part in an effective reduction strategy due to how wide-spread this airborne toxin tends to be inside our homes. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 13]**PEER REVIEWED**Protect containers against physical damage. Store where temperature range is 16 deg C to 35 deg C. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1979., p. This page covers everything you may want to know about this indoor air pollutant. Should not be stored in confined spaces or near open flames. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Handling Chemical Carcinogens in the Laboratory: Problems of Safety. 14]**PEER REVIEWED**PRECAUTIONS FOR "CARCINOGENS": ... Incineration may be only feasible method for disposal of contaminated laboratory waste from biological expt. aqueous & organic-solvent solutions, otherwise it is necessary ...
It is difficult to find a home without some levels of noxious Formaldehyde in the air. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1988., p. 707]**PEER REVIEWED**Use universal gel, fly ash, universal sorbent material, or cement powder to absorb the spill. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal. 49-72]**PEER REVIEWED**Disposal Methods: Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U122, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. [USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.2-7 (1981) EPA ]**PEER REVIEWED**A good candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids.